The financial survival of wine grape producers depends on increasing unit yield and/or reduction of input costs. The yield on wine grapes can be replenished by increasing the effective number of glands per vine, and therefore towards ha or by improving the efficiency of the same number of buds.
Effective buds are the most suitable fertilizer, and models often occur. This gives up a bear shot at least two bunches that are typical of a particular species. The effectiveness of all vineyard management is measured by their participation in the successful maintenance of eye performance in the course of the lifetime of grapes.
Preparation of both physical and chemical soil should ensure that the soil depth is most effective according to the type of soil, especially by making a good fine root system: a thick root ratio is created not only to buffer grapes with environmental conditions that do not clement. But also to cope with the additional stress of higher plant loads.
CultIVAR selection should ensure that the roots are adapted to the soil and area characteristics, while the tiger should benefit from the best climate to indicate its species characteristics. In particular, rootstock is heavily involved by buffering vines against climate change, while also playing an important role in the best ripening of large plants. Under warm conditions, vines can maintain their work through effective water absorption and fragmentation.
The planting process should prevent the compaction of the walls and the bottom of the plant hole, while the vine should be planted in the middle of the hole and not along the sides. This ensures consistent growth of the roots in all directions around the vine, which ensures that the roots are effective for the rest of the grape’s lifespan.
The choice of directional rows should ensure that maximum sunlight energy is trapped and allows cold movement of air down the row. Sunlight and rain are free and production practices should be optimized for the best use of both.
The vine spacing should ensure that the row width is as narrow as possible, while the distance within the vine should vary according to the potential of the soil. On more fertile soil, the distance between vines is wider, while the opposite is true for the bad soil. The narrower the row, the higher the yield to the point where the inner obscurity of the row reduces the fertility of the eye. By adjusting the distance inside the vine in a full length row of soil, the best and consistent density of the roof has a consistently assured firing length, which in turn results in the best grapes and quality of the wine. By making a minimum into the roof management, the desired level of sunlight must be obtained in the roof.
The choice of TRELLIS system depends on the wine purpose and should always ensure that sunlight energy is used efficiently. The mesh frame should be cost-effective and should be positioned shoots so that the purpose of production may be achieved with minimal labor input. Shoots may hang free, grow vertically, break vertically up and down horizontally, or place in the combination of the above, as long as the purpose of production is satisfied in a cost effective way. In addition, the mesh frame should be able to support the inherent strength of the vine without Limit it too much. A mesh frame that provides too little roof space hinders the long-term fertility of the eye.
The vine training process should ensure that the stems are straight, cordons, and more. Balance, accurate holder spacing and good root volume At the same time, it should not provide any gaps on the cordon wire, whether between grapes or on the cordon arm in many vineyards, such gaps are responsible for as much as 30% crop loss.
The trimming policy should be aimed at producing, maintaining a good holder spacing, preventing the build-up of bearers and providing an annual balanced eye load. The capacity of any vine to be cooked, some plants loaded appropriately should not be exceeded by excessive eye output, because in due course this will reduce the yield potential of the vine.
The skinny firing program should be adapted to the purpose of production and allow for adequate sunlight penetration in the bunch area during full flowering, so that eye performance may be preserved over several years. The purpose should reduce the need for thinning photography by means of accurate distance within the vine.
The firing position should be adapted to the purpose of production, and if possible, it should be made sure that all the leaves in the roof are exposed to sunlight energy. In the vineyard, some free-hanging shoots meet the purpose of production; Shoots from thinning grapes do not occur, should not be tucked into any situation.
The growth tips removal scheme should ensure a uniform firing length. Make sure that the wooden frame can support the strength, rechannel nutrients in favor of a bunch of nutrition and stimulate the development of enough young leaves (lateral shoots). For sustainable grape composition and optimization ideals should be controlled strength, so that more than one end-to-end elimination of growth is not required.
Defoliation is used only when necessary and should increase the level of sunlight distributed in the bunch zone, preventing the yellowing of the leaves, improving the microclimate for good grape composition and limiting rot. The transplant begins at the berry series to obtain UV rays in the bottom two-thirds of the roof and should be completed at the berry nut step, it should be followed by random methods on both sides of the roof. The purpose should be to eliminate the need for defoliation using appropriate long-term practices.
Workers’ training should be a priority in the South African wine industry. The efficiency of workers who know why and how the job should be done is significantly higher than the ones that just plods along. High levels of knowledge contribute to labor savings.
Probably the most expensive mistake in practice is to manage all vineyard blocks on the farm as if they were called blocks and then to get a B or C price for the grapes, so it is extremely important that the production purpose for each block on the farm is clarified to the winemaker each year before pruning, and then to strictly comply with those requirements. In practice, this often means that parts of the block need to be managed differently to get the desired grape yield for different types. Cost savings are as important as increased yields/ha in strategies to improve the financial position of South African wine grape producers.